Study of Capacitor charging and discharging 
 Estimate the time constant of a given CR circuit by studying Vc (voltage across the capacitor) vs t (time) graph while charging and discharging the capacitor. Compare with the theoretical calculation. [Do not use values of R given on the board. Rather, construct new values of R using series/parallel combinations of the resistances given (you can also use resistance boxes)]. [See subsections 5.4 & 5.5]
 Estimate the value of the unknown capacitor when one known capacitor and one unknown capacitor are connected in the series and parallel configurations by studying the Vc (voltage across the capacitor) vs t (time) graph during the charging/discharging. [See subsections 5.4 & 5.5]
 Estimate the leakage resistance of the given capacitor by studying a series CR circuit. Explore your observations. [See subsection 5.7]
 Investigating the advantage of adiabatic charging (in 2 steps) of a capacitor to reduce the energy dissipation using Ic squared (Ic=current across the capacitor) vs t (time) plots. Compare with the theoretical result by estimating the maximum possible error. [[See subsections 5.8 & 5.10]]
 Estimation of the maximum possible errors for all these goals.


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Study of the Power Source 
 Estimation of the output resistance (Rs) by studying VL vs iL graph for given R1 & R2. Compare with the theoretical calculation. [Do not use values of R given on the board. Rather, construct new values of R using series/parallel combinations of the resistances given (you can also use resistance boxes)]. [See subsection 1.3: Experiment A]
 Consider different (two) values of R1, R2, (Say R1new, R2new) keeping their ratio constant. Repeat part 1 for these values and (i) verify Rsnew=x Rs where Rinew = x Ri, i=1, 2. [See subsection 1.4: Experiment B]
 Plot (i) Power dissipation at the load resistance RL (PL) vs RL for x=1 and two other values (< 1 & >1). Explore your observations in the light of maximum power transfer & load matching. RL readings should vary from 0.1 Rs to 10 Rs. [See subsections 1.5 & 1.6: Experiments C & D].
 Analysis of the reflected load resistance (RLprime) in a network by investigating RLprime vs RL plot. [See subsection 1.7: Experiment E]
 Estimation of the maximum possible errors for all goals, wherever applicable.


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Study of LCR Circuit 
 Estimate the equivalent power loss resistance for a real inductor using the voltage phasor for a series LR circuit. [See Experiment 6D from Experiment 3A manual]
 Determine phase relationships among different voltages in a series LCR circuit using a phasor diagram. [See subsection 2.9: Experiment F from Experiment 3B manual]
 Estimate the bandwidth, quality (Q) factor, and the resonant (antiresonant) frequency from the current vs input frequency plot for a series (parallel) LCR circuit. [See Experiment 3C manual].
 Analyze a parallel LCR circuit for low/very low R values and/or high L values. Explore your observations. [See Experiment 3C manual]
 Estimation of the maximum possible errors for goals 1 and 3.


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Experiment with Helmholtz coils 
 Measure the magnetic field along the Zaxis of the coils (individual and both) with r = 0 when the distance between coils is (i) R ( R= radius of the coils), (ii) > R, and (iii) < R. Use Helmholtz configuration (currents flowing in the same direction in the two coils). Explore your observations (for all the three aforesaid cases separately) graphically to verify the principle of superimposition of the magnetic fields.
 Measure the magnetic field along the Zaxis of the coils (individual and both) with r = 0 when the distance between coils is R. Use Reverse configuration (currents flowing in the opposite directions in the two coils). Compare with a similar analysis done using Helmholtz configuration. Remember to justify your observations graphically in light of the principle of superimposition of the magnetic fields.


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Study of ElectroMagnetic Induction 
 To study the EMF induced as a function of the velocity of the magnet using a graphical realization of Faraday’s law. [See subsection 7.3]
 Determine value of the unknown resistance by studying charge accumulated in a capacitor over a time interval through induction. [See subsection 7.4]
 To study and compare EM dampings arising in (i) open circuit configuration, (ii) close circuit configuration, and (iii) circuit containing capacitor. Explore your findings. [See subsection 7.5]
 Estimation of the maximum possible error for the second goal.


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